Gender, race, health, but also age and intelligence can be described as anthropological differences. They are perceived as ways of being of the human being, but contain opposing determinations of the human such as masculinity vs. femininity, normality vs. pathology.
Socially, historically and culturally constructed, they are permeated by relations of domination and shaped by ideologies. Therefore, they are always the subject of disputes and resistance. Critical theories point out that these differences can never be neatly demarcated and try to link them in the construction of identities and collective agency.
Intersectionality is perhaps the most influential model for this.
The philosopher Étienne Balibar discusses this model on the basis of an examination of what makes anthropological differences at once comparable and non-reducible to each other.